GREEK EDUCATION 37 Greek States into the Macedonian Empire and the beginnings of that cosmopolitan movement of thought which found its philo- sophical expression in the self-sufficient wise man of the Stoics ; and while he himself still believed that " man is by nature a political animal/' and that the fullest realization of his political nature was only possible in the little city states of Greece, the individualistic trend is plainly disccrnable in him. Note, for example, the statement that prefaces his discussion of education in the Politics : " A city can be virtuous only when the citizens who have a share in the government are virtuous; and in our state all the citizens share in the government. Let us then inquire how a man becomes virtuous* For even if we could suppose all the citizens to be virtuous, and not each of them, yet the latter would be better, for in the virtue of each, the virtue of all is involved/'* So far as education is concerned, Aristotle is led in the same direction by one of his metaphysical doctrines, Plato found the reality of things in their ideas: Aristotle, developing and cor- recting Plato, found reality not in the ideas themselves but in the ideas as embodied in definite individual beings, especially in such beings as animals and man that realize themselves by unfolding their distinctive form or idea from within. Now education in one aspect of it is just this process of self-realization. Man's nature as man depends on the fact that when fully developed he is a rational being : reason, in Aristotle's language, is his deter- mining form or idea. It is the reason that ultimately reveals itself in him that is at work from the beginning, impelling and guiding the course of his growth. The result of this emphasis on individuality is that Aristotle approaches the discussion of education from two sides; on its social aide as an art subordinate to the art of politics; on its individual side as a process of self-realissation by development from within. The fact that his main discussion of the subject occurs in the course of a survey of political theories seems to indicate that he regarded the former as the more important but in point of fact most of what he has to say is about the individual rather than the social aspect of education. Here is a brief statement of his view: " In men, in the first place, reason and mind are the end towards which nature strives.